6. Statistics

These statistics are for the UK i.e. England, Wales, Scotland, and N. Ireland. Sometimes data is only available for Great Britain. Where this happens then percentages are used direct and absolute numbers are extrapolated to the UK population. Dependant children i.e. less than 16 or less than 18 and in full time education are indicated by (<16).

UK General statistics and family types 1994

UK population                                           58.395M
UK Country populations
	Eng:                                                   48.708M
	Wales:                                                 2.913M
	Scot:                                                  5.132M
	N.Irl:                                                 1.642M
All live births                                         750K
No. children < 16                                       12,074K
Abortions                                               156.5K
No. Households in UK                                    22.4M
No. married men (all)                                   12.98M
No. married men (<60)                                   9.47M

Source: [1] [5] [12]

UK Families with dependant children Numbers (estimated) and percentages 1994

No. families with children (<16)                        7.64M 				10
Married couple families with children (<16)             5.5M (72.5% of fam+child<16) 	2,10
Cohabiting couple families with children (<16)          520K (6.9% of fam+child<16)	2,10
Lone mother families with children (<16)                1.5M (19.5% of fam+child<16)	2,10
Lone father families with children (<16)                100K (1.1% of fam+child<16)	2,10

Source: [2] [10] Note: absolute numbers are derived from 1991 GB data and so are estimated

UK Family types (with head <60) 1994 - Numbers and %

No. married men (<60)                                   9.47M
Married men with no children                            2.8M   (21.3%)
Married men with children (<16)                         5.5M   (42.4%)
Married men with non dependent children                 1.2M   (11.2%)
Cohabiting couples with no children                     770K   (5.7%)
Cohabiting couples with children (<16)                  520K   (3.5%)
Cohabiting couples with non dependent children          26K    (0.4%)
Lone mother-headed households with children (<16)       1.5M   (13.6%)
Lone father-headed households with children (<16)       100K   (1%)
Lone parent families with non dependent children        386K   (3%)

Source: [2] [10] [12] Note: absolute numbers are derived from 1991 GB data and so are estimated

UK Lone parent statistics 1994

Percent of lone parent households - mother headed       91.4%
Percent of lone parent households - father headed       8.6%

Percent of lone mothers in full/part employment 40% Percent of lone fathers in full/part employment 60%

No. lone mothers not working 900K 1.5M * 60%

Live births outside marriage/year 240K Percentage of births outside marriage 32% Suicides in lone parent families xx Drug abuse in lone parent families xx

Annual increase in lone mothers (aver) 7%/year Annual increase in lone fathers (aver) 4%/year

Lone mothers (breakdown) Single(never married) 680K +16%/year Separated 370K +10%/year Divorced 450K +1%/year Widowed 62K -3%/year

No. children(<16) in lone parent families 2.5M

Source: [1] [2] [10] [14] Note: absolute numbers are derived from 1991 GB data and so are estimated

UK Marriage/Divorce Statistics 1994

Marriages/year                                          331.2K/year
Divorces/year                                           173.6K/year
Divorces with children (< 16)/year                      99.55K/year
Probability of divorce                                  41%
Total children (<16) in married families                9M              12M-2.5M-0.5M
Total Children (< 16) in family divorce/year            189K/year       99.55 * 1.9
Average age of children in divorce                      7 years
Percent mothers awarded sole residence                  71%
Percent fathers awarded sole residence                  7%
Percent joint residence awards (read mother)            21%
No. of married fathers loosing custody/year             91K/year        99.5 * 91.4%
% of married fathers loosing all contact after 3 years  50%
No. married of fathers loosing all contact after 3 yrs  45.2K/year      91K * 50%

Source: [1] [3] [5] [11] [13]

Divorce petition reason 1989 Total % By petitioner %

Adultery                        29.00           Husband 12.4
                                                Wife 16.6

Behavior 44.75 Husband 5.75 Wife 39.00

Desertion 0.75 Husband 0.25 Wife 0.50

Separation 19.50 Husband 7.75 Wife 11.75

Source: [9] FNF factsheet

UK Cost of divorce and non-marriage 1994

Divorces/year                                        173.6K/year
Divorces with children (< 16)/year                   99.55K/year
Average male legal costs (no children)	xx           10K
Average father legal costs from divorce              29.3K

Total father legal costs from divorce 5086M/year Total legal aid cost of divorce (M+F) 1650M/year est Cost of court + court welfare service to taxpayers xx Cost of lost output from demotivated fathers 2475M/year (est)

Total divorce related costs 9211M/year

Source: [1] [5] [11]

UK annual cost of lone mothers

For this calculation we make a simple assumption that if a lone-mother is working she does not claim her low wage benefits

Lone mothers 1.5M Unemployed 60% = 900K Total lone-mother claimants 541K Lone parents 91.4% mother-headed

Annual Fraction Claimed by LM Unemployment benefit 1277M 9% * 1.5M/540K 319M/year (540K claimants 9% lone mothers unemployed) One parent benefit 290M 91.4% 265M/year 6.30 /wk (91.4% Lone mothers) Income support 17079M 900/5675 2708M/yr (5675K claimants, 900K LM claimants) Income support lone parent premium 281M 91.4% 257M/year 5.20/wk * 52 wks * 1.04M = 281M (1.04M LP claimants) Social fund (maternity+extra assist) 186M 45M/year 100 (on-off) assume 10% LM with baby and 200 assist(150K LP claimants) Family credit 1449M 802M/year 40% LM work assume 20% claim (542K claimants 300K LM claimants)

Housing benefit + council tax benefit 10305M 1872M/yr Rent rebate (3016K claimants) Rent allowance (1634K claimants) Lone parent premium 11.50/wk Council tax benefit (5496K claimants)

(assume 40/wk * 52 * 900K claimants)

Passport benefits if on welfare: 1081M 900K /5675K 171M/year Free dental care 25M Free school meals, milk, vitamins 161M Free NHS prescriptions 473M Free eyesight tests 3M Free glasses 2M School buses 417M (Claimants 5675K, LM claimants 900K)

Social costs of divorce: Unquantifiable Cost of therapy, school disruption, suicides, child homicide, child homelessness, increased drug taking, increased crime, unemployment, clinical depression, poor school achievement

Total incremental cost of single mothers v. married mothers 6439M/yr

Compare with: DHSS supplied cost of lone mothers 9.15B/yr Note includes child benefit etc. so is absolute cost, not incremental See 15)

Total cost of non-marriage every year

Total cost of divorce and lone mothers	9211+ 6439                      15.65B/yr
Note: does not include cost of fathers who go unemployed and work black 
	does not include cost of CSA or money recovered CSA stats xx

Compare with: Total current cost of secondary education 8.3B/year 12 Total expenditure on defence 23B/year 12

Earnings

Average male gross weekly earnings (incl)                       369.0/wk
Average male hours worked                                       41.9
Average female gross weekly earnings (incl)                     264.2/wk
Average female hours worked                                     37.6

Taxation 1994

Total revenue                                                   87.2B
Customs and excise                                              72.4B
No. total taxpayers                                             25.3M
No. single taxpayers                                            10.3M
No. married men taxpayers                                       9.0M
No. married women taxpayers                                     5.9M
Total Revenue paid by all men                                   77.4B 369*52*0.33*14.15
Total number of men paying revenue                              14.15M
Total Revenue paid by all women                                 39.1B
Total number of women paying revenue                            11.05M
Total Revenue paid by married men                               xx
Total number of married men paying revenue                      xx
Total Revenue paid by married women                             xx
Total number of married women paying revenue                    xx

Highest educational qualification of head of household

                 Lone parent head:         Other families:
degree                  2%                      13%
higher ed               6%                      14%
GCE 'A'                 7%                      13%
GCE 'O'                 23%                     15%
no educ quals           45%                     18%

Source: General Household Survey 1991

Fatherless families

Percentage of children in fatherless families US 22% UK 20.7% (2.5M / 12.074M)

Reports from the US show the effect that absence of a father has on nearly 22% of American children in a fatherless home is:

63% of youth suicides are from fatherless homes (Source: US DHHS Bureau of the census)
90% of all homeless and runaway children are from fatherless homes
85% of all children that exibit behavioral disorders come from fatherless homes (Source: Centre for Disease Control)
80% of rapists motivated with displaced anger come from fatherless homes (Source: Criminal Justice & Behaviour, Vol 14, p. 403-26, 1978)
71% of all high school dropouts come from fatherless homes (Source: National Principles Association Report on the State of High Schools.)
70% of juveniles in state-operated institutions come from fatherless homes (Source: US Dept of Justice Special Report, Sept 1988)
85% of all youths sitting in prisons grew up in a fatherless home (Source: Fulton Co. Georgia jail populations, Texas Dept. of Corrections 1992)

These statistics translate to mean that children from a fatherless home are:

Divorced people are:

Occurring to a married man during marriage      Probability %   Occurrences to currently
                                                                married men

Be divorced 53% 7355K Be divorced by wife using fabricated grounds 24% 3338K Lose custody of his children 24% 3417K Lose custody and never see children again 8% 1069K Lose his home 39% 5515K Lose a significant proportion of life savings 49% 6923K

Occurring to a man during divorce Probability % Occurrences to married men/year

Have no effective defence to a wife's petition 61% 110K Not receive legal aid 64% 115K Have false allegations made against him 58% 105K Be the victim of malpractice's in his legal case 87% 156K

Occurring to a married man after divorce Probability Occurrences to divorced men per year

Suffer obstruction to contact with his children 61% 110K Suffer stress 83% 149K Will not remarry 77% 138K Have attitudes to women in general 63% 114K Have attitudes to the law 90% 163K

Assets and legal costs Average/man Total money/year

Transferred to women at marriage 9913 1748M Transferred to women at divorce 18804 3384M Paid to lawyers (men only) 29306 5275M

Maintenance after divorce per case Total over % of Total per year per year 10 years cases for 10 years Maintenance for children 3216 32160 47.6 2752M Maintenance for ex-wives 5292 52920 13.4 1276M

Only 53.5% of men in divorces involving children make child maintenance. Therefore the total amount of money transferred from a man to a women over 10 years is 9913+18804+53.5%*32160= 29306 per case over 10 years

Source: [5]

Child support agency

Money recovered by CSA from non-resident parent                 350M
Money recovered by old court system                             350M
Operating cost of child support agency to taxpayer              213M
Operating cost of old court system	                        60M
Maintenance assessment forms returned                           260.5K
Total cases cleared                                             568K
Interim assessment                                              64K
Full maintenance assessment                                     187K
Average maintenance                                             45.53/wk
Interim maintenance                                             96.67/wk
Compliance rate                                                 33%
Debt uncollectable                                              900M
Normal employment rate                                          87%
CSA father employment rate                                      55%
No. fathers unemployed because of CSA                           0-32%
No CSA related suicides                                         39		8
Percent of MPs mailbag taken up by CSA                          10-20%		7
No. MPs wanting abolition of CSA                                200
Time to deal with claims                                        211 days	8
Average accuracy rate (chief CS officer Haselwood)              34% accurate 

Source: [7] [8] [16]

Education

                        Men             Women
Ratio
Primary teachers        37K             173K
Secondary teachers      116K            113K
University teachers     26K             5K

UK Health

Total Health spending No. doctors on list 26567 No. patient per doctor 1900/doctor Paid to doctors 2960M No. prescriptions per year 422M/year Average cost per prescription 8.28 male to female visits to the doctor ratio 1:2 Finished consultant episodes ordin admiss+day cases 3281 males 4682 females Male to female ratio of emergencies 28231(M) .v. 19978(F) Addenbrooks Hosp In-vitro fertilisation costs v. no fathers loosing contact 3200/case xx Number DHSS leaflets for male specific conditions 1 Number DHSS leaflets for female specific conditions 2 Breast cancer screening per year 1.0M Breast cancer research spending 3.8M(Gov) 500K(Tenovus) Cervical cancer screening per year 3.9M Cervical cancer research spending xx Prostate cancer screening per year No screening program Prostate cancer research spending 1M(Gov) 200K(Tenovus) Include child leukaemia xx

men woman Lung, trachea, bronchus cancer deaths per year 20402 11084 Bladder cancer deaths per year 3250 1552 Ovary cancer deaths per year - 3879 Breast cancer deaths per year 300 13113(eng+wal) Prostate cancer deaths per year 8848 - Cervical cancer deaths per year - 1329 Testicular cancer deaths per year 83 - HIV deaths per year 478 63 Drinking (units of alcohol per week) 15.4 5.1 Smoking (cigarettes per week) 114 97 Suicide deaths per year 2790 757

Statistic references

1) Office of Population Censors and Surveys (OPCS now called ONS) Population Trends No. 85 Autumn 1996.

2) Population review: Families and Households in Great Britain John Haskey Population statistics ONS No 85 Autumn 1996 GB numbers are normalised to UK figures

3) FNF literature

4) The relationship revolution Duncan Dormor

5) The impact of Divorce Law and Practice on Fathers and Children John Campion Annex 3 Statistics ISBN 1 900080 04 4 The Cheltenham Group 1996

6) Farewell to the family Patricia Morgan ISBN 0-255 36356-7 IEA 1995

7) CSA 'scrap the act' lobby of MPs. 15-May-96 Alex Carlisle MP (Lib Dem): "that problems linked with the agency now account for 20 percent of my postbag" and also Tony Benn MP (Lab): "I have more constituency cases involving the CSA than any other" and also private communication later: with an officer worker for Anne Campbell MP (Lab) questioning a 10-20% CSA postbag "that is probably about right"

8) NACSA News

9) FNF factsheet Divorce petitions granted 1989

10) Estimated number of one-parent families and their prevalence in Great Britain in 1991 John Haskey Population Trends 78 OPCS GB numbers are normalised to UK numbers

11) Divorce and Children John Haskey Population Trends No. 84 Summer 1996 Eng+Wales figures normalised to UK population

12) Annual abstract of Statistics 1996 HMSO 1991 data extrapolated to 1994 data

13) The proportion of married couples who divorce John Haskey Population Trends No. 83 Spring 1996

14) Lone parents and married parents with dependant children in Great Britain John Haskey Population Trends No. 72 Summer 1993

15) Social security statistics 1995 HMSO ISBN 0-11-762350-4

16) Private Communication with NACSA